Era: Late Medieval
12th Century – 15th Century
The world is increasingly interconnected through trade and commerce. The Mongol Empire links East and West, broadening the world’s knowledge base even as it devastates China and the Islamic kingdoms. The first world travelers appear, Ibn Battuta and Marco Polo, Zheng He, and Columbus. Notable dynasties and empires during this time include the Ming dynasty, the Ottoman, Inca, Mali, and Khmer Empires, and the dar-al-Islam.
- Director: Youssef Chahine
- Release Date: 1997
- Production Country: France, Egypt
Averroes is appointed as grand ulama by the caliph, but is driven out by the caliph's fundamentalist rivals.
- Director: Juan de Orduña
- Release Date: 1951
- Production Country: Spain
Christopher Columbus convinces the Spanish Royal couple to finance his journey to look for a western route to China, and stumbles upon an entirely "New World."
- Director: Sergei M. Eisenstein, Dmitri Vasilyev
- Release Date: 1938
- Production Country: Soviet Union
A Russian prince, Alexander Nevsky, defends Novgorod from invading German knights with a rallied army in 13th-century Russia.
- Director: Cristina Trebbi
- Release Date: 2009
- Production Country: United States, Germany
The Americas, before the arrival of Columbus, was far from a pristine "New World," but had a vast and diverse history of peoples and empires, farms, and urban centers.
- Director: Paul Sapin
- Release Date: 2004
- Production Country: United Kingdom
The landscape of medieval Europe was the dynamic space in which Muslim kingdoms and the Ottoman Empire provided the seeds of science and learning that led to the European Renaissance.